Cross-cutting challenges to food security

Gender

Cross-cutting challenges to FNS - Gender
Image: via Flickr (by: CIAT)

Gender relations are among the key determinants of food and nutrition security. Women and men have different roles and positions in agriculture and in the food system as a whole with these changing over time. This Knowledge Portal topic page includes evidence on the importance of closing the gender gap in agriculture and the food system, tools used for gendered analyses and reviews, and news about innovative approaches to eradicate gender inequality in food systems.

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Gender [im]balance in productive and reproductive labor among livestock producers in Colombia: Implications for climate change responses
Published by CCAFS,
This info note provides an account on gender division of labor in livestock production and household activities in Colombia. Even though men and women undertake the production in the livestock sector jointly, the roles and responsibilities in livestock production and household maintenance are segregated along gender lines. The policy consideration of both men’s and women’s direct and indirect contributions to livestock production is crucial to avoid any unintended climate change policy consequences and ensure successful response to technology adoption. »
Inclusive development from a gender perspective in small scale fisheries
Published by Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability ,
This article argues that gender inequality and discrimination challenge the social economic and environmental sustainability of the global small-scale fisheries sector in achieving inclusive development. The absence of a gender-aware perspective in fisheries research is often justified from the premise that fisheries are a male-dominated sector. However, millions of women are engaged in small-scale fisheries and their work has been systematically discounted and devalued. »
Coffee and cocoa value chains: Gender dynamics in Peru and Nicaragua
Published by CIAT,
This report assesses women’s and men’s participation in coffee and cocoa value chains in Latin America in order to identify key considerations and next steps for the development of research, policy and practice on value chain upgrading for enhanced smallholder prosperity. In particular, the report analyzes the differential roles that women and men play and the benefits they perceive from their participation in coffee and cocoa value chains. »
Agrarian transformation(s) in Africa: What’s in it for women in rural Africa?
Published by Development,
This article published in Development argues that while Africa is undergoing agrarian transformation(s) women are not benefiting equally compared to men. Rural African women in particular are posited as the main beneficiaries of these transformation, but the picture emerging is that of the privatization of the commons, privileging international, and to some extent local, private commercial agri-business interests over those of smallholder farmers, mostly women. The authors argue that these developments are promoting the rapid destruction of ecosystems and the increase in conflicts and displacements affecting the rural poor. »
How to green food systems in a gender-smart way: A matter of insight and smart interventions
Published by Groverman & Van der Wees,
This paper elaborates on the relation between food systems and gender equality building on knowledge, experience and good practices in the field of agriculture, climate change, food security and value chains. The authors argue that since the current food systems poses serious problems of sustainability, a solution should be sought in greening of these systems which refers to investments to improve human well-being and social equity, reduce environmental risks and ecological scarcities. »
Developing gender-sensitive value chains
Published by FAO,
This report by FAO tries to facilitate in the systematic integration of gender equality dimensions into value chain development programmes and projects. It raises awareness on gender inequalities and discusses the importance of addressing these dimensions in value chain development, while also building a common approach for work on gender-sensitive value chain development. It tries this by bringing together key concepts from value chain development and gender and by providing concrete guiding principles for the integration of gender concerns into value chain development projects and programmes. »
Towards gender responsive policy formulation and budgeting in the agricultural sector: Opportunities and challenges in Uganda
Published by CGIAR-CCAFS,
This publication focuses on Uganda's approach towards gender responsive policy formulation and budgeting in the agricultural sector. The publication assesses, through a grading system, the level of gender integration of 83 agri-food policies and strategies at national, district and sub-county levels. The study also draws attention to the way men and women are characterized throughout the policy documents. »
Exploration of cultural norms and practices influencing women’s participation in chickpea participatory varietal selection training activities: a case study of Ada’a and Ensaro districts, Ethiopia
Published by Journal of Gender, Agriculture and Food Security,
This article (PDF) in the Journal of Gender, Agriculture and Food Security describes the reasons why women in Ethiopian communities did not take up training opportunities. In order to encourage gender equality in delivery of varietal knowledge to male and female farmers in Ada’a and Ensaro districts of Ethiopia, chickpea breeders set a policy that each male farmer would bring along his wife to participatory varietal selection sessions. Women farmers did not attend planned trainings as expected. »
Practical Notes: Critical elements for integrating gender in agricultural research and development projects and programs
Published by Journal of gender, agriculture and Food security ,
This paper, published in the Journal of gender, agriculture and Food security answers the question on how to integrate gender in agricultural research, development projects and programs. Gender integration has become a common topic within research and development circles. This paper provides four entry points that provide guidance to research organizations or research programs looking for a systematic process for gender integration. »
Investing in women along agribusiness value chains
Published by IFC,
This report calls on the private sector to invest in closing gaps between men and women in agribusiness as it sees potential benefits from closing gender gaps for companies. For each stage in the value chain, the report helps companies identify potential benefits from closing gender gaps. The authors accomplished this by reviewing women’s contributions and constraints within each stage, outlining solutions for the private sector, demonstrating the business rationale for making gender-smart investments, and presenting best-practice case studies. »
The importance of gender in policy processes related to the right to food: The cases of Senegal and Togo
Published by FAO,
This report elaborates on the importance of gender in policy processes related to the right to food. The purpose of the study is to identify potential entry-points for the development of activities on the right to adequate food in both countries. It analyses the importance of gender issues in key dimensions of national policy and legislative processes currently ongoing considered as viable opportunities to initiate or strengthen the implementation of the Right to Food Guidelines at country level. »
Involving men in nutrition
Published by GFRAS,
This note by GFRAS argues that it is important to include men in nutrition initiatives to turn around food discrimination. Women may learn a lot from courses on good nutrition, but excluding men means that women may not be able to act on their improved knowledge. Men may feel angry because their own nutritional needs are ignored. »
“As a husband I will love, lead, and provide.” Gendered access to land in Ghana
Published by World Development Journal,
This paper in the World Development Journal, argues that gender relations are more than the outcomes of negotiations within households. It explains the importance of social norms, perceptions, and formal and informal rules shaping access to land for male and female farmers at four levels: (1) the household/family, (2) the community, (3) the state, and (4) the market. The framework is applied to Ghana, using the results from qualitative field work. »
Transforming gender and food security in the Global South
Published by Routledge, IDRC,
This book provides empirical evidence and conceptual explorations of the gendered dimensions of food security. It investigates how food security and gender inequity are conceptualized within interventions, it assesses the impacts and outcomes of gender-responsive programs on food security and gender equity, and addresses diverse approaches to gender research and practice that range from descriptive and analytical to strategic and transformative. »
The gender dimensions of global value chains
Published by ICTSD,
This report elaborates on the gender dimension of global value chains since policy makers are increasingly turning to global value chains as a means of driving development, generating employment and raising incomes. However, the access and benefits from participation value chains are closely related to gender issues and opportunities are different for men and women. »
Gender dimensions on farmers’ preferences for direct-seeded rice with drum seeder in India
Published by IFPRI,
This study measures the willingness of male and female farmers to pay for climate-smart technology in rice. Rice is the most important crop in India in terms of area, production,and consumption. It is also the biggest source of greenhouse gas emissions among all crops. Direct-seeded rice (DSR)with drum seeder, a climate-smart technology, requires less labor and water and is more climate friendly than transplanted rice; yet, its adoption is slow in India. The authors of this study carried out a discrete choice experiment with 666 farmers from the Palghar and Thane districts of Maharashtra to measure their willingness to pay for drum seeders—a key piece of equipment for adopting DSR. »
Assessing gender inequality in food security among smallholder farm households in urban and rural South Africa
Published by World Development Journal,
This study in the World Development Journal, extends existing knowledge on household food (in)security by assessing gender inequality among small-holder farm households in urban and rural areas of South Africa. In doing-so, the authors use the gender of the head of household and treatment effects framework. With the ongoing changes in climate, household food insecurity is likely to be more widespread in most smallholder and subsistence farm households in sub-Saharan Africa. »
Gender inequality in agrifood systems in Latin America and the Caribbean
Published by FAO,
In this study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the value chains of cassava (Belize), quinoa (Bolivia), corn (Guatemala) and the regional cultivation of cotton are examined from a gender perspective, to enhance their sustainability. The FAO study notes that participation of women is more pronounced in activities that involve time and physical effort, such as planting, weeding and harvesting. »
Women in non production roles in agriculture: A literature review of promising practices
Published by USAID,
This review of literature reveals that there are many opportunities to increase women’s economic empowerment beyond interventions focused on production. While there is a wealth of information related to women’s economic empowerment through production, there is limited available data related to best practices and promising approaches for women’s empowerment at other value chain levels. This literature review aims to fill this knowledge gap by examining approaches to empower women or increase their incomes in the value chain outside of production. »
Gender differences in climate change perception and adaptation strategies: A case study on three provinces in Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta
Published by CGIAR-CCAFS,
The presents insights on current climate change perceptions and adaptation strategies and gaps between male and females farmers in three selected provinces across the Mekong River Delta (MRD) in Vietnam. Perceptions of climate change in Vietnam do not appear to be individual but rather dis-aggregated at the household level or possibly at the landscape level. »
Intervention guide: for the women’s empowerment in agriculture index (WEAI)
Published by USAID,
This Intervention Guide for the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) by USAID provides guidance to donors and implementers of agricultural market development programs on how to translate into practice the evidence and insights gained from the WEAI survey results. This is the second edition of this guide. It has been updated to include more examples of how to implement the interventions, gender analysis questions, social and behavior change communication techniques, and more. »
Gender, climate change and agriculture
Published by Gender, Technology and Development,
This issue explores gender-based disparities in resource access and its contribution to uneven production levels between men and women. As farmers continue to develop methods of climate change adaptation, unequal access to resources could prevent women from adapting at the same pace as their male counterparts. Findings presented in the special issue demonstrate that providing women with engagement opportunities and adaptation resources will greatly reduce the variance in agricultural productivity between men and women, which currently range from four to 25 percent globally. »
Adressing women’s work burden: Key issues, promising solutions, and way forward
Published by FAO, IFAD, UNIDO,
This factsheet discusses women's triple work burden in the household, as producers and at community level. The competing demands linked to this triple role make women time poor. This affects their quality of life and decision making, puts their health at risk and prevents them from taking full advantage of economic opportunities through engagement in income generating activities. »
How much of the labor in African agriculture is provided by women?
Published by Worldbank Group,
This article by the Worldbank Group is a product of the “Agriculture in Africa—Telling Facts from Myths” project. It challenges the common knowledge of the contribution of women in Africa's agricultural. The contribution of women to labor in African agriculture is regularly quoted in the range of 60–80%. Using individual, plot-level labor input data from nationally representative household surveys across six Sub-Saharan African countries, this study estimates the average female labor share in crop production at 40%. »
Gender integration in research: So where do we start?
Published by Journal of Gender, Agriculture and Food Security,
This blog elaborates on the practicalities of integrating gender in research. Most people recognize that agriculture research and development must be gender responsive and must address the needs of both men and women, while recognizing and addressing the unequal access to resources and differential levels of productivity between men and women. However, the question often remains of where and how to start integrating. »
Promoting gender-transformative change with men and boys
Published by Promundo-US, CGIAR,
This manual showcases 13 activity-based group sessions to spark critical reflection on harmful gender norms with men and boys in aquatic agricultural systems. The manual also contains guidelines and recommendations for facilitation of the sessions. At the end of the manual, there is a tool to guide facilitators in the development of community-based campaigns, should group members wish to take action following the completion of their participation in the group. »
Global gender and environment outlook: The critical issues
Published by UNEP,
The first Global Gender and Environmental Outlook presents an overview of critical evaluations and analyses of the interlinkages between gender and the environment. It shows their importance for gender-sensitive policy-making and actions and provides an overview of existing knowledge on these subjects. »
What do we mean by ‘women’s crops’? A mixed methods approach
Published by ICRISAT,
This ICRISAT study aimed to revisit this issue of gender and commercialization of crops. They developed a ‘women’s crop tool’ that measures how much control women have over different crops. This tool was used to compare women’s perceived level of control at different stages of commercialization and to compare the perceptions of men and women regarding women’s control. »
What do we mean by ‘Women’s crops’? Commercialisation, gender and the power to name
Published by Journal of International Development,
This article gives a nuanced analysis of changing gender roles in the commercialization of "women's crops". The authors explore the relationship between commercialization and gender for groundnuts in Eastern Province, Zambia, using a mixed methods approach. Women saw themselves as having greater control over groundnuts than other crops, and both sexes saw groundnuts as controlled by women. »
Gender analysis training for EKN projects report
Published by AgriProFocus,
This report of an expert meeting initiated by AgriProFocus in cooperation with Dutch embassy in Ethiopia, highlights the importance of gender analysis in each stage of a (development) program/project. It also provides a practical four-step approach to integrate a gender analysis in projects. »
A crop of one’s own? Women’s experiences of cassava commercialization in Nigeria and Malawi
Published by Agri-Gender, Journal of Gender, Agriculture and Food Security,
This article elaborates on women's experiences and the benefits from cassava commercialization. Improving the effectiveness of agricultural markets for economic growth and poverty reduction has been a central focus for development initiatives, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Narratives often equate commercialization of cassava to benefits for women. However, little is known about whether or how women can engage with new cassava commercial opportunities and the livelihood outcomes from this, particularly given the importance of cassava for food security. »
Rural women’s participation in producer organizations: An analysis of the barriers that women face and strategies to foster equitable and effective participation
Published by Journal of Gender, Agriculture and Food Security (AgriGender),
This paper analyzes the factors that hinder women’s participation in producer organizations and aims to identify and document good practice that can be applied by agricultural research and development institutions. In the last decades, participation in producer organizations has become a key principle of development, enabling people’s empowerment, inclusiveness, and facilitating democracy. However, studies show that women and youth often remain excluded from participation and leadership roles, decision-making processes and services. This review identifies several factors as major barriers for women’s participation. »
Gender, assets, and agricultural development
Published by World Development Journal,
This article elaborates on how ownership of assets by women could positively influence the development outcomes at the household and individual levels. The research draws lessons out of eight mix-methods projects that evaluated the impacts of agricultural development projects on individual and household assets. The results show that assets both affect and are affected by projects, indicating that it is both feasible and important to consider assets in the design, implementation, and evaluation of projects. »
Gender, agriculture and water insecurity
Published by ODI,
This report links gender to agriculture and water insecurity. It explains how and why improved water management on the farm matters for women and girls, and what can be done to better support opportunities for them, as well as for men and boys, in the face of climate change. Rural female farmers are becoming increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and water insecurity. Thus, policy and programme implementation for water insecurity must consider social norms around gender and other drivers of inequality. »
Bringing gender analysis and resilience analysis together in small scale fisheries research: Challenges and opportunities
Published by University of East Anglia ,
This working paper scrutinizes the challenges and opportunities for bringing a gender analysis together with an analysis of social-ecological resilience in the context of policy-orientated small-scale fisheries research. The authors argue that whilst the analysis of social-ecological resilience has made valuable contributions to integrating social dimensions into research and policy-making on natural resource management, it has so far demonstrated limited success in effectively integrating considerations of gender equity. »
Food security, gender and resilience: Improving smallholder and subsistence farming
Published by Routledge,
This book focuses on how food security and resilience can improve smallholder and subsistence farming and how integration of gender can accommodate this. Through the integration of gender analysis into resilience thinking, this book shares field-based research insights from a collaborative, integrated project aimed at improving food security in subsistence and smallholder agricultural systems. The scope of the book is both local and multi-scalar. The gendered resilience framework, illustrated with detailed case studies from semi-arid Kenya, is shown to be suitable for use in analysis in other geographic regions and across disciplines. »
The way forward: Accelerating gender equity in coffee value chains
Published by Coffee Quality Institute,
This report tries to respond to key concerns related to addressing gender equity in coffee supply chains and to share learning on challenges and best practices. It proposes recommendation for individual companies, public-private partnerships and the coffee industry as a whole, to create a foundation for industry-wide collaboration towards a more resilient coffee supply chain through greater gender equity. Women do much of the work on smallholder coff­ee farms, however, despite their contributions they are often excluded from decision-making processes and have less access to resources. »
Gender, nutrition, and the human right to adequate food: Toward an inclusive framework
Published by Routledge,
This book links the themes of gender, nutrition and the human right to adequate food and proposes an inclusive food sovereignty framework. The authors argue that the human right to adequate food and nutrition are evolving concept and identifies two structural "disconnects" that fuel food insecurity for a billion people, and disproportionally affecting women, children, and rural food producers. These are the separation of women’s rights from their right to adequate food and nutrition, and the fragmented attention to food as commodity and the medicalization of nutritional health. »
Are there nutritional trade-offs in increasing women’s time in agriculture?
Published by AgriLinks; IFPRI,
elaborates on the linkages between women's engagement in farming and nutrition within rural households. Many studies have shown that one way to improve nutrition among rural households is to increase women’s engagement in farming since increasing women’s control of food production and their power to make decisions, leads to better nutrition for their families. However, increasing women’s time in agriculture may also have adverse effects on their own and their families’ nutrition, taking time away from nutrition-improving domestic work such as preparing food, feeding, childcare, collecting water and firewood, and engaging in good hygiene and sanitation practices. »
Bringing agriculture and nutrition together using a gender lens
Published by KIT, SNV,
This paper (PDF) from the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) and SNV is a background paper to the Nutrition and Gender Sensitive Agriculture (NGSA) Toolkit. The paper refers to the current discussions on linking food and nutrition security at program level. It looks at the discussions from a gender lens, and how this demands for a different way of program planning. It shows the need to plan programs based on knowledge of the current realities of men and women in a particular context and time. To facilitate this kind of program planning, the toolkit promotes an integrated approach to understand under-nutrition through linking different sectors -namely agriculture, nutrition, WASH- using a gender lens. »
Women forging change with agroecology
Published by Farming Matters Magazine,
This issue of Farming Matters presents stories about women from who forge positive change through agro-ecology on their farms and in their communities. While around the world women leverage change in their communities using agroecological approaches, only little has been written about it. This issue of Farming Matters presents stories and analyses of agro-ecology as a strategy for women to create safe, healthy and just societies. »
African rural women hold the key to climate change resilience
Published by ABN, The Gaia Foundation, AWDF,
This report shows the central role of African rural women within agricultural systems and their contribution to diversity, climate change resilience and nutrition. The report focuses on the role of women in knowledge systems of seeds and the challenges they face from agri-business practices and seed monopoly laws. It elaborates on how the complexity of this knowledge has evolved through women's relationship with land and seed, and their understanding of the nutritional and cultural needs of the family and community. »
Enhancing the potential of family farming for poverty reduction and food security through gender-sensitive rural advisory services
Published by FAO,
This paper elaborates on the role of gender-sensitive rural advisory services (RAS) in addressing gender inequalities. RAS programmes have often fallen short of expectations to design and implement relevant services to help rural women and men achieve food security and generate more income. This paper is based on an examination of a broad selection of existing literature on gender-sensitive RAS. »
Cultivating equality: Delivering just and sustainable food systems in a changing climate
Published by Food Tank, CARE, CGIAR-CCAFS,
This report shows how inequality determines diets around the world and shapes the ability of farmers to adapt to climate change. Inequality determines who eats first and who eats worst, and how this shapes people’s ability to adapt to climate change. The report argues that solutions around food production are not enough, and demands more dialogue and action to address inequality in food systems. »
Supporting women farmers in a changing climate: Five policy lessons
Published by CGIAR,
This policy brief tries to focus attention to women farmers in changing climates. Agriculture is one sector that will be particularly hard hit by a changing climate and to respond and adapt to global climate change, agricultural producers (particularly those in developing countries) will need to embrace new, more sustainable technologies and practices. However, when it comes to discussing climate-smart agricultural practices, one group often seems left out: women. The policy brief presents five key policy recommendations to better address women’s roles in both agriculture and climate change adaptation. »
The cost of the gender gap in agricultural productivity
Published by UNWomen, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank,
This concise report by UNWomen estimates the monetary value of the gender gap, its associated costs and the effectiveness of certain policies and interventions in agricultural productivity. The report focuses on the countries Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. However, the analysis can be replicated by policy makers from other countries since the methodology and data used to quantify the costs of the gender gap and to determine to what extend different factors contribute to the gender gap are aptly presented in two Appendices. »
Identifying women farmers: Informal gender norms as institutional barriers to recognizing women’s contributions to agriculture
Published by Journal of Gender, Agriculture and Food Security,
This article elaborates on the challenges of collecting sex-disaggregated data. While sex-disaggregated data collection is seen as an important step toward understanding women’s contributions to agriculture and including a gender perspective in agricultural research or development, social norms both in farming communities and research organizations often limit the amount of data collected from women. This reinforces the notion that women are not farmers or producers. »
How resilient are farming households and communities to a changing climate in Africa? A gender-based perspective
Published by Global Environmental Change,
This article uses a gender-based perspective to assess the conditions that underlie vulnerability and resilience of households and communities that face climate-change. The authors utilized a feminist political ecology framework to analyze how women and men are differently affected by issues of climate change and resource degradation. The authors compared the agricultural and livelihood systems of male and female respondents, as well as their productive resources, organization and access to services, and concluded that women have less access than men to common property resources, as well as to cash to obtain goods or services. »
Replacing gender myths and assumptions with knowledge
Published by CIMMYT,
In this expert opinion blog, CIMMYT Director General Martin Kropff speaks on the topic of ‘Wheat and the role of gender in the developing world’ prior to the 2015 Women in Triticum Awards at the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative Workshop in Sydney on 19 September. Kropff highlights "If we are to be truly successful in improving the lives of farmers and consumers in the developing world, we need to base our interventions on the best evidence available. If we act based only on our assumptions, we may not be as effective as we could be or, even worse, actively cause harm." »
Examining gender inequalities in land rights indicators in Asia
Published by Agricultural Economics Journal,
This article in Agricultural Economics Journal examines gender inequalities and land rights indicators in Asia. It argues that while a broad consensus has emerged among policymakers and researchers that strengthening women's property rights is crucial for reducing poverty and achieving equitable growth, only little data exists on women' property rights in Asia. »
An exploratory study of dairying intensification, women’s decision making, and time use and implications for child nutrition in Kenya
Published by European Journal of Development Research,
This article elaborates on the implication of dairy intensification strategies and women's decision-making on child nutrition. Results from the mixed methods study conducted with households representing low, medium and high levels of dairy intensification in rural Kenya indicated that children in high-intensity households received more milk than children in medium-intensity households. »
Validating women’s knowledge and experiences: A case study of women’s experiences and food security in Kenya
Published by Pathways to African Feminism and Development, Journal of African Women's Studies Centre,
This paper aims to demonstrate that women’s experiences and knowledge about food security are critical in order to create inclusive and more comprehensive policies in food security. Using a feminist theoretical framework, the author argues that women’s knowledge and experiences have remained invisible and underutilized by policy makers and development workers. One reason for this is that research methods have themselves been products of a male knowledge development process and thus have enhanced exclusion and marginalization of women’s perspectives. »
Economic empowerment of African women through equitable participation in agricultural value chains
Published by African Development Bank Group,
This report highlights five major constraints that can limit women’s productivity and inclusion into the agricultural economy in Africa: lack of access to assets, lack of access to financing, limited training, gender-neutral government policy, and time constraints due to heavy domestic responsibilities. Women make up almost 50% of the agricultural labour force in Sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 62% of economically active women in Africa work in agriculture, making it the largest employer of women. »
Running out of time: the reduction of women’s work burden in agricultural production
Published by FAO,
This publication (PDF) by FAO discusses rural women’s time poverty in agriculture, elaborates on its possible causes and implications and provides insight into the various types of constraints that affect the adoption of solutions for reducing work burden. »
Realising women’s land rights: law, gender and farming in Tanzania
Published by James Currey,
This book explores women’s claims to land in practice. The book is based on a year of ethnographic fieldwork, mainly in Arusha, northern Tanzania. This is a region with a high number of land conflicts and legal disputes throughout the colonial era to the present day. The book traces the progression of claims from their social origins, through legal processes of dispute resolution to judgment. »
Why gender matters for food safety
Published by CGIAR,
In this blog post, Sophie Theis and Delia Grace relate findings from a recent A4NH/International Livestock Research Institute analysis of 20 livestock and fish value chains in Africa and Asia that reveal how gender differences in value chain participation influence risk exposure. »
Building a gender-transformative extension and advisory facilitation system in Sub-Saharan Africa
Published by Journal of Gender, Agriculture and Food Security,
The authors provide evidence for a “conceptual lock in” in rural advisory services, one that constructs farmers as male regardless of the reality of female farmers on the ground. They show that this not only hampers access by women to advisory services, it also fails to tackle the underlying gender inequalities that prevent both women and men from maximizing their decision-making capacity and economic potential. »
Information networks among women and men and the demand for an agricultural technology in India
Published by IFPRI,
In this discussion paper by The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), agricultural information networks among men and women are analyzed by using gender-disaggregated social network data from Uttar Pradesh, India. »
The new Gender and Land Rights Database: a hub of information on gender-equitable land tenure
Published by FAO,
FAO has re-launched its Gender and Land Rights Database (GLRD). The database consists of several main sections: country profiles and gender and land-related statistics. Furthermore, a new Legislation Assessment Tool is included, which offers 30 indicators for measuring progress towards gender equity in land tenure in national policy and legal frameworks. The database provides information, »
Gender opportunities and constraints in inclusive business models: the case study of Unifrutti in Mindanao, Philippines
Published by FAO,
This publication (PDF) by FAO adds to the debate around whether private investment in agriculture contributes to production growth, poverty reduction, food security and gender equality by case studies in the Philippines. Data and information were collected via key informant interviews, focus group discussions and direct observation. The report shows that investment models and contractual arrangements implemented by Unifrutti - a major private company producer, processor and exporter of pineapple and banana in the Mindanao Region - have had positive implications for the livelihood of the rural communities involved. »
Is gender inequality the main roadblock to achieving nutrition targets? The Global Nutrition Report on gender equality
Published by Development Horizons,
In this blog, Lawrence Haddad highlights the draw out messages about women and gender from the Global Nutrition Report. He highlights that improvements in nutrition are important to achieve gender equality and to empower all women and girls. Improvements in women’s nutritional status indicators, especially anemia rates in women of reproductive age, seem slow. Recommendations... »
Supporting women’s agro-enterprises in Africa with ICT: a feasibility study in Zambia and Kenya
Published by The World Bank,
This publication (PDF) by the World Bank views ICTs as potentially transformative technology for rural development. The paper examines how ICT-based interventions might be designed to strengthen women’s participation in commodity value chains under the two projects. »
Adaptation actions in Africa: evidence that gender matters
Published by CGIAR/CCAFS,
This paper (PDF) by CGIAR presents the initial data analyses of the CCAFS gender survey implemented in four sites in Africa. It highlights some key gender-related findings regarding climate change perceptions, adaptation strategies of climate smart agricultural (CSA) practices and information needs across sites in Africa. Important findings include that both men and women are... »
Gender matters in farm power
Published by KIT, CIMMYT, CGIAR,
This report explores how gender matters in small-scale farm power mechanization in African agriculture, particularly in maize-based systems. It investigates how inter-household gender dynamics affect women's articulation of demand for and adoption of mechanization in Ethiopia and Kenya. The study offers a conceptual approach to grasp these gender dynamics, a gender analysis methodology, and a set of recommendations. »
The effects of microcredit on women’s control over household spending in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Published by Campbell Systematic Reviews,
This report (PDF) by a group of researchers under the editorial control of the Campbell Collaboration, aims to provide a systematic review of the evidence on effects of microcredit on women’s control over household spending in developing countries. The authors identified 310 papers for full text examination, of which 29 papers, corresponding to 25 unique... »
Gender in agriculture: closing the knowledge gap
Published by IFPRI,
This book (see synopsis) by IFPRI and FAO, is a compilation of the growing knowledge base on the gender gaps in agriculture. It explains why closing gender gaps is important; analyses the role of gender in agriculture; and takes a look at access to assets, agricultural inputs, and markets by gender. »
Coffee Toolkit 2014: sustainable coffee as a family business
Published by Hivos,
This Coffee Toolkit (PDF) was developed for the coffee industry, in response to the demand for knowledge on how to best integrate women and youth in the coffee value chain and provides practical approaches and tools for stakeholders and service providers. The toolkit is a joint effort of the SCP, Agri-ProFocus, Fair & Sustainable Advisory... »
Reducing the gender asset gap through agricultural development: a technical resource guide
Published by IFPRI,
This guide (PDF) by IFPRI, explores the intersection of gender and assets in the context of agricultural interventions. Researchers from IFPRI and ILRI worked together and shared the lessons learned from the Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project (GAAP) activities. The guide aims to: 1) increase the reader’s knowledge about the importance of both gender and... »
The Gender and Inclusion Toolbox: Participatory Research in Climate Change and Agriculture
Published by CGIAR/CCAFS,
This toolbox (PDF) provides gender-responsive methods and tools for the development and research community. It is the result of a long-term partnership between the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), and CARE International. The participatory toolbox builds on the previously released Gender and Climate Change Research... »
The Gender advantage: women on the front line of climate change
Published by IFAD,
This report compiles the experiences of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in their work to close the gender gap and mobilise women in climate change adaptation programmes and projects. The paper shows that successful adaptation to climate change means recognizing the role of women smallholder farmers. »
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