Gender-based constraints and opportunities to agricultural intensification in Ethiopia
This literature review (PDF) by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) provides a holistic perspective of the stock and interaction between the capitals required by men and women farmers for effective engagement in agricultural intensification in Ethiopia. Although land reform has enhanced women’s access to land, participation in decision-making and asset control are yet to be achieved. Female-headed household farm sizes are smaller compared to those of male-headed households and they possess less livestock. Women work longer hours compared to men, affecting their decisions to adopt time and labour intensive technologies. Due to cultural norms, there are discrepancies in access to information, extension services and credit. This lowers women’s access to farm inputs to invest in irrigation, soil fertility and land improvements. Women have lower membership to farmer-based organizations. When this would be higher, women can achieve economies of scale in access to markets, build confidence, and leadership. The Ethiopian government has plans to develop the agricultural sector and gender equality is one of the pillar strategies. Policy enforcement, transformation of gender constraining norms, gender capacity development, development of women’s social capital, increasing women’s access to and control over resources and benefits from their investment will minimize the inequalities.
Also see this article in the Community Development Journal that explores the factors of enhancing or constraining women’s access to resources required to participate and benefit from small ruminant value chain activities in Ethiopia.