Socio-economic, marketing and gender aspects of village chicken production in the tropics: A review of literature
This literature review (PDF) by ILRI focusses on the socio-economic, gender and marketing aspects of chicken production in the tropics. Chicken production is the main stay of livelihoods of most rural households in developing countries, especially for the disadvantaged groups and less favoured areas of rural Africa and elsewhere in the world. Chicken production contributes significantly to food security, poverty alleviation, promotion of gender equality and assists in the mitigation of adverse economic impacts. Chickens are also key in a number of social and cultural functions, hence have the potential to increase social well-being. Large number of women in the household often with assistance of children, are actively engaged in chicken production, which helps them to generate revenue and/or complement the nutrition requirements of the family. Most of them used their own indigenous chicken breeds, and local knowledge of chicken management. Ownership of rural chicken, decision-making regarding selling and consumption was not consistent; sometimes its plural, sometimes male or women dominated. Project intervention that identifies and supports women’s roles in the chicken value chain by strengthening their decision-making power will help rural women to break the poverty cycle. Chicken marketing, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, is not booming well, and inefficient. Biological aspects of chicken production (feeding and breeding) are efficient if accompanied by efficient marketing system, since it is rewarding to all agents in production, marketing and consumption of chicken. Therefore, an efficient marketing system has paramount importance in the chicken production. There are also some other constrains to the development of smallholder poultry production. Some of the main challenges include disease control, genetic improvement, access to production inputs. Policies and actions need to focus on reducing the constraints related to chicken production.