Agribusiness development and trade

Inclusive Business

Image: World Bank

Inclusive business refers to sustainable business solutions that expand access to goods, services and livelihood opportunities for low-income communities in commercially viable ways. This topic refers to good practices, models, examples and knowledge products that highlight how business in agricultural value chains and agri-food markets can become more inclusive.

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Limitations of inclusive agribusinesses in contributing to food and nutrition security in a smallholder community: A case of mango initiative in Makueni county, Kenya
Published by Sustainability journal,
This paper explores the potential food and nutrition security contribution of inclusive agribusinesses in Makueni county, Kenya. The results show that participation in the inclusive agribusiness favors smallholder households with relatively higher production capacity in terms of better physical capital, access to loans, and human capital. »
“Inclusive business” in agriculture: Evidence from the evolution of agricultural value chains
Published by World Development Journal ,
This review paper explores published evidence on the structural factors shaping agricultural value chains and their implications for social inclusion. »
COVID-19 and smallholder producers’ access to markets
Published by FAO,
The aim of this brief is to inform on options to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on food and agriculture with attention to smallholders’ access to markets. This brief builds on lessons learned in 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic and during the 2007–2008 global food prices volatility crisis. »
Towards demand-driven services? The role of feedback mechanisms in agribusiness-based advisory services for smallholder farmers
Published by Enterprise Development and Microfinance,
This paper explores the extent to which agribusinesses provide demand-driven services based on farmer feedback and how they integrate and learn from such feedback. The study shows that agribusinesses provide focused advisory services to diverse farmers in developing countries, which are often farmers’ main source of technical advice. »
Inclusive agribusiness models in the Global South: The impact on local food security
Published by Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability,
This paper argues there is little evidence that shows inclusive business initiatives improve the food and nutrition security (FNS) of many. Private business is increasingly presented as a leading agent of development in policy, also in the pursuit of developmental goals beyond business, such as food security (SDG2 in particular). »
Partnering for inclusive business in food provisioning
Published by Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability,
This review aims to unravel how partnering processes relate to processes of inclusion in the context of food provisioning. In food provisioning, inclusion has two key dimensions: the inclusion of (low-income) consumers to increase levels of food security, and the inclusion of smallholder producers to promote inclusive economic growth. »
Improving smallholder inclusiveness in palm oil production: A global review
Published by Tropenbos International & WUR,
This review reflects on several questions and looks at means of improving smallholder inclusiveness in palm oil production. Palm oil is a commodity that causes controversy due to its impacts on smallholder livelihoods, local communities, biodiversity, land productivity and climate change. »
Inclusive business models in agri-food value chains: What safeguards for whom?
Published by Journal of African Business ,
This article promotes inclusive business models as unique opportunities to combine profitability for firms needing reliable supply from small-scale farmers with market inclusion for those farmers. In environments with weak public institutions, such agreements may be conducive to sustainable income, yet costly or even impossible to enforce. »
Boosting farmer incomes in agricultural supply chains
Published by Standfords Social Innovation Review,
This review examines how to take major, structural steps forward on farmer income by analysis nine high-performing cases. The review exposed three patterns that help explain the succes of these cases: 1) Greatly strenghtening farmer market position. 2) Businesses playing an important role, but not through business as usual. 3) Tapping into growing domestic markets. »
Africa Agriculture Status Report 2019: Hidden middle
Published by AGRA,
The Africa Agriculture Status Report of 2019 highlights the trends and progress, as well as challenges and constraints of private sector firms in the upstream and midstream/downstream off-farm components of the agri-food system. The private sector has a major role to play in the transformation of African agriculture. In particular, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) will be vital to the continent’s long-awaited green revolution. »
Smallholder households: Distinct segments, different needs
Published by CGAP,
This paper identifies three segments of smallholder households and provides information to strategize how to reach and serve smallholder households. Understanding the distinct profiles of smallholder segments can help financial services providers, government bodies, and agricultural development partners better identify and serve their most relevant smallholder households. »
Base of the pyramid marketing and distribution
Published by 2SCALE,
This thematic paper focusses on marketing and distribution to the base of the pyramid (BoP) and the way of working of this approach. Instead of looking at the product, price, place and promotion (4Ps), the program focusses on acceptability, affordabililty, awareness and availability (4As). »
Achieving Sustainable Development Goals in the global food sector: A systematic literature review to examine small farmers engagement in contract farming
Published by Business Strategy and Development Journal,
This study aims to identify the factors that drive smallholder participation in contract farming. In cases where smallholders dominate the agrarian context, there is evidence of smallholder participation in contract farming. When the agrarian context contains both large and poor smallholders, the latter remain excluded from participating in contract programs. In addition, the review finds that smallholders with more assets and formal land tenures are likely to participate in contract farming. »
Inclusive businesses in agriculture: Defining the concept and its complex and evolving partnership structures in the field
Published by Land Use Policy Journal,
This paper aims to provide a more precise insight into Inclusive Businesses (IBs), from a conceptual perspective and from a more practical one when implemented. Results show that whereas multiple-instrument IBs do obtain improved inclusiveness of low-income communities and smallholder farmers in commercial value chains, issues related to corporate control over resources, lack of knowledge transfer and marginal benefits remain. »
Access to rural credit markets in developing countries, the case of Vietnam: A literature review
Published by Sustainability Journal,
This article focuses on the characteristics of rural credit markets, the determinants of farmer access to markets, the socio-economic impacts of credit access in Vietnam and comparing those of some developing countries. Although positive relationship among credit access, output production, productive efficiency, and total household income are found in most papers; credit also has positively significant impacts on only non-farm income. »
Determinants of the competitiveness of smallholder African indigenous vegetable farmers in high-value agro-food chains in Kenya: A multivariate probit regression analysis
Published by Agricultural and Food Economics Journal,
This study aims at determining the main role of households’ capitals, institutional, and access-related factors in conditioning the decision of smallholder farmers of African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) to access pillars of competitiveness in high-value market chains (HVMCs). The results suggest that about two thirds of smallholder AIV farmers had access to at least one pillar of competitiveness in HVMCs. »
Agriculture Finance in Zambia: How can smallholder inclusion be deepened?
Published by Indaba Agricultural Policy Research Institute (IAPRI),
This working paper sought to identify ways in which smallholder agricultural finance inclusion in Zambia can be deepened. There are a number of notable gaps that could foster increased finance flows, like the absence of a credit registry that includes the unbanked. One recommendation to deepen smallholder agricultural finance inclusion is to embrace technology that will reduce cost of financial service delivery. »
Land governance and inclusive business in agriculture: Advancing the debate
Published by Overseas Development Institute,
This report reviews the state of the global debate on inclusiveness in agricultural investments and analyses what 'inclusiveness' means to different value chain actors. A cross-cutting approach that looks at the key features of value chain relationships enables the evaluation of inclusiveness within each business, and allows for more nuanced recommendations on how to enhance inclusiveness. »
Effect of market access provided by farmer organizations on smallholder vegetable farmer’s income in Tanzania
Published by Cogent Food & Agriculture,
This paper evaluates the effect of market accessed through farmer organizations on household income in Tanzania. Farmer organizations can benefit farmers by increasing their incomes and providing a good platform for the provision of farm inputs and marketing of produce, which can immensely enhance farm productivity and increase farmers’ incomes. »
An empirical evaluation of policy options for inclusive dairy value chain development in Nicaragua: A system dynamics approach
Published by Agricultural Systems ,
This research tested and evaluated the short-, medium-, and long-term impacts of specific interventions and policies in the Matiguás dairy value chain with the goal of strengthening the competitiveness and inclusion of small- and medium-scale producers. »
Super platforms: Connecting farmers to markets in Africa
Published by CGAP,
This blog is on super platforms that are pushing the boundaries of financial inclusion around the world, creating million of new jobs and stimulating trade, especially in rural markets. As Africa's population doubles by 2050 and the demand for food and rural jobs escalates, the transformative power of super platforms becomes a strategic imperative. »
What works to increase smallholder farmers’ income? A landscape review
Published by Dalberg, Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation,
This report aims to answer the question: “What are the most effective actions that lead buyers can take to enable smallholder farmers in global supply chains to meaningfully increase their incomes?”. Results showed  that it is possible to raise farmer incomes through existing interventions to a degree.  »
Inclusive PPP’s: Emerging best practices
Published by Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO),
This report aimed to gain more insight of inclusiveness in the public-private partnership project portfolio of the Netherlands Sustainable Water Fund and the Facility for Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Food Security, to increase insight into specific characteristics of the beneficiaries and possible indirect effects . »
Linking smallholder vegetable producers to markets: A comparison of a vegetable producer group and a contract-farming arrangement in the Lushoto District of Tanzania
Published by Journal of Rural Studies,
This study compares a farmer-based organization and a contract farming approach, as ways to link smallholder vegetable producers to markets. For several decades there has been a growing interest in institutional arrangements to link smallholder farmers to markets. »
Driving innovations in smallholder engagement: Insights in service delivery and finance
Published by IDH,
This report presents findings and best practices empowering farmers through service delivery, while generating sustainable returns to their businesses. Currently, approaches towards farmer engagement are isolated and not embedded into structures and not leverage with sustainable financing. »
Understanding agribusiness-based advisory services: Findings of a learning trajectory
Published by KIT, Agriterra, Moyeed Coffee, F&BKP,
This report on the functioning of agribusiness-based agricultural advisory services to small-scale farmers. Advisory services are potentially important mechanisms for small and particularly medium farmers to improve the way they farm, increase the volume and quality of production and enhance their livelihoods. »
Partnering for value: Lessons from Public Private Producer Partnerships (4Ps) in practice
Published by SNV,
This paper outlines factors that are important for successful Public Private Producer Partnerships (4Ps) business cases. A major conclusion is that there is a sound basis for the role of 4Ps in rural development. Long-term 4Ps can contribute to development of agricultural value chains. »
Turning farmers into business partners through value co-creation projects: Insights from the coffee supply chain
Published by Sustainability Journal,
This study examines the empowerment of low-power, vulnerable stakeholders of global, complex supply chains as one effective strategy to increase value co-creation and to moderate the vulnerabilities that threaten supply chain resilience. »
Social entrepreneurship in an inclusive business model: A new business model for sustainable agroforestry
Published by IntechOpen,
This case study aims to identify critical factors for the implementation and management of an inclusive business model. A number of independent factors influence the implementation of a new business model. The key factor is involvement of a social entrepreneur. »
The fine line between trusting and cheating: Exploring relationships between actors in Ugandan pineapple value chains.
Published by The European Journal of Development Research,
This article examined the creation and maintenance of business relationships as well as challenges faced based on semi-structured interviews with farmers, brokers and traders.. Findings show how trust unfolds to mediate exchange relations that structure chain organisation. »
Agricultural innovation and inclusive value-chain development: A review
Published by Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies,
This paper aims to review the knowledge about inclusive value-chain development (VCD) in the context of international agricultural research and draw out implications for future research and action. »
Integration of small farmers into global value chains: Challenges and opportunities inside the current global demand
Published by journal Tec Empressarial,
This article analyze the main challenges and opportunities derived from the insertion of small farmers in global value chains. Global value chains often represent an option for local firms and suppliers in developing countries to get access to high-value markets and new technologies. »
Reaching deep in low-income markets: Enterprises achieving impact, sustainability, and scale at the base of the pyramid
Published by Deloitte,
This report covers 20 well-established inclusive businesses and explores whether and how businesses can reach ‘down pyramid’. Most enterprises that were studied are able to reach base of the pyramid (BOP) populations with critical goods and services and some are able to reach surprisingly deep. »
Contracts between smallholders and private firms in Mozambique and their implications on food security
Published by UNU-WIDER,
This working paper focuses on the role of contract farming agreements between smallholders and private investors in rural contexts. These contracts can take different forms, but in general are agreements under which producers commit to supply produce to a buyer firm. The focus of this paper is on contracts’ effects on food security in Mozambique. »
NGOs in inclusive business: Contradiction or a complementarity?
Published by the Practitioner Hub for Inclusive Business,
This blog discusses why NGOs should engage in inclusive business and what role they can play. Many still think that traditional NGO work and business approaches are a contradiction. But NGOs have unique strengths and assets. »
New horizons: Accelerating sustainable development through inclusive business in Kenya
Published by Business Call to Action,
This report highlights opportunities for inclusive business across five sectors: financial services, food and beverages, healthcare, infrastructure and skills building and education. »
Toward more inclusive and sustainable development of Zambian aquaculture
Published by CGIAR Research Program on Fish,
This policy brief describes opportunities and approaches for inclusive and sustainable development of the aquaculture sector in Zambia. Three innovative, inclusive approaches can be considered “good practice” to achieve impact at scale; pro-poor microfinance mechanisms; decentralized seed distribution model; and inclusive business models (contract farming) and out-grower schemes. »
Scaling inclusive business models at the nexus of poverty and environment: Case studies from the Philippines
Published by UNDP, the Istanbul International Center for Private Sector in Development, Business Call to Action,
This report examines inclusive business (IB) models at the nexus of poverty and environment in order to demonstrate how to scale them up successfully. The paper focuses on three inclusive agroforestry businesses in the Philippines. Investigation into these companies’ IB models reveals the fundamental components of success for the companies, farmers, the ecosystem, local value-chain actors and the natural environment where production takes place. »
Female-led enterprise & agribusiness development
Published by SNV,
This blog elaborates on the positive impacts of female-led enterprises and agribusiness development for delivering sustainable development. The author, Raymond Brandes, believes that climate change adaptation and mitigation, nutrition, women’s economic empowerment and gender equality are important cross-cutting issues to be addressed in agribusiness agendas. »
Not by technology and money alone: The importance of functional capacity strengthening in agribusiness partnerships
Published by ICRA,
This collection of case studies gives insights into the 2SCALE project, through 15 stories in four countries (Benin, Ghana, Mali and Nigeria), focusing on ten commodities. »
Contract farming as part of a multi-instrument inclusive business structure
Published by Agrekon,
This article discusses contract farming agreements, which are presently being restructured to form part of more complex inclusive business set-ups. Additional instruments, alongside contract farming, are implemented to overcome the challenges of contract farming and to adapt to the policy environment. »
Inclusive businesses in agriculture
Published by African Sun Media,
This book scrutinizes the concept of inclusive business and investigates how inclusive businesses work and who benefits from them. The book focuses on the South African agricultural sectors and relates to three ongoing restructuring processes in South Africa. »
Improving the positive impacts of investments on smallholder livelihoods and the landscapes they live in
Published by Tropenbos International, FMO, KIT, Hivos,
This working paper aims to to stimulate debate on how to improve positive impacts from investments on smallholder livelihoods and to move from ‘do no harm’ risk mitigation approach towards a ‘do good’ impact approach. Aimed primarily at investors, in just 15 pages it highlights how to work profitably and equitably with smallholders, and how to promote better land governance and livelihoods. »
The fund manager perspective: Moving the needle on inclusive agribusiness
Published by RAF Learning,
This briefing note interrogates how different impact-oriented agribusiness funds combine public and private capital to build a more inclusive agricultural market. Agribusiness in emerging markets has seen an increase in private equity and other forms of investment. »
TechnoServe initiative for inclusive agricultural business models
Published by TechnoServe,
This publication shows four case studies of large and influential food companies and agribusinesses scale inclusive business models. They show the intersection of multinational corporations and sustainable smallholder production. These projects span a broad variety of contexts: from sustainable mango production in India by the Coca-Cola Company to local rice and date sourcing in Egypt by the Kellogg Company. »
Inclusive agribusiness
Published by Global Donor Platform for Rural Development, GDI, BEAM Exchange, CDI,
These six papers explore some of the key themes in inclusive agribusiness. The papers discuss enabling policy environments, access to finance, gender, multi-stakeholder partnerships, inclusive business models in agriculture and systemic approaches to inclusive agribusiness. »
How can inclusive business advance the SDGs?
Published by Next Billion,
This blog discusses how inclusive business (IB) can be part of the solutions to deliver on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Two publications are addressed, both highlighting recommendations and examples on inclusive business for SDG 2: “End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture”. »
Enabling the business of agriculture
Published by World Bank Group,
This report argues that better agriculture regulations in low and middle income countries could go a long way towards feeding the world's growing population and improve farmers' livelihoods around the world. The report states that, while many countries are already home to strong, commercially-oriented agriculture, more needs to be done. »
Value chain upgrading and the inclusion of smallholders in markets: Reflections on contributions of multi-stakeholder processes in dairy development in Tanzania
Published by The European Journal of Development Research,
Increasingly, value chain approaches are integrated with multi-stakeholder processes to facilitate inclusive innovation and value chain upgrading of smallholders. This pathway to smallholder integration into agri-food markets has received limited analysis. This article in the The European Journal of Development Research analyses this integration through a case study of an ongoing smallholder dairy development programme in Tanzania. »
Bittersweet vanilla: the unsavoury story of vanilla farmers in Madagascar’s Sava Region
Published by Fairfood, CNV International,
This report by Fairfood and CNV Internationaal identifies a host of interventions that will improve the situation of farmers in the vanilla value chain in Madagascar. The report examines the riches that vanilla production delivers, and the abject poverty many vanilla farmers experience. Vanilla is one of the most expensive and widely exported spices in the world, yet the large majority of the 80,000 smallholder vanilla farmers do not see this reflected in their income and are often even unable to provide food for themselves and their families. »
Connecting smallholders to markets: an analytical guide
Published by CSM,
This analytical guide by CSM shows in what way policy recommendations illuminate the relationships of smallholders to markerts. The guide examines how small-scale food producers’ organisations and allied civil society can use the recommendations in their national and international advocacy and how they can work together with their governments to apply them in the context of national and regional policies and programmes. The authors argue that the policy recommendations illuminate the relationships of smallholders to markets in two main ways. »
Engaging with farmers’ organizations for more effective smallholder development
Published by IFAD,
This toolkit by IFAD provides guidance on developing sustainable partnerships with farmers’ organizations (FOs) within IFAD projects that consider FOs as relevant partners and not simply as beneficiaries of IFAD-funded activities. Given the complexity and diversity of both country contexts and FOs, the toolkit is not intended to be rigidly prescriptive. Rather, it provides an overview of the different approaches IFAD uses when building partnerships with FOs for the purposes of designing its strategies and programmes and implementing IFAD-supported projects. »
Can commercial farming promote rural dynamism in sub-Saharan Africa?: Evidence from Mozambique
Published by UNU-WIDER,
This working paper by UNU-WIDER, aims to bring evidence to the debate around the impact of large commercial farms on neighbouring smallholders in low-income sub-Saharan Africa. The findings point to significant heterogeneity in the local economic effects of commercial farms rather than any kind of automatic spillover effects. The implication is that a more nuanced policy position is demanded with respect to promoting rural dynamism through new commercial models. In particular, the creation of suitable incentives for and regulation of outgrower schemes needs to be a priority. »
The business case for digitally-enabled smallholder finance
Published by RAF Learning,
This report by RAF Learning is exploring the business case for smallholder finance, in particular the role of digital approaches in making it possible to profitably serve this market at scale. New digital technologies and innovative business models are making it possible to provide credit to smallholder farmers in Africa. The report looks at where and how innovations in digital technology promise to enable financial service providers to serve smallholders at scale. »
IFC and agribusiness in a changing environment
Published by RVO, IUCN NL & IFC,
RVO and IUCN NL organized together with the International Finance Corporation (IFC) on 28 October a one-day event in The Hague in the framework of the World Bank Group-Netherlands strategic partnership ‘Food for All’. The event convened more than 80 professionals in the private sector, knowledge institutions, NGOs and policy makers engaged in agribusiness in developing countries. »
How inclusive is inclusive business for women? Examples from Asia and Latin America
Published by ADB,
This report assesses the extent to which inclusive business models promote women's economic empowerment. As a commercially viable business model, inclusive business bears considerable potential for women’s economic advancement, though not every inclusive business will inevitably do so. It is important to distinguish two ways in which inclusive business is relevant to women’s economic empowerment. »
New directions for inclusive pluralistic service systems, report of FAO expert consultation
Published by FAO, KIT,
This paper by FAO and KIT presents a synthesis of deliberations, and a set of policy recommendations and priority actions for pluralistic service systems (PSS). A growing variety of public and private agricultural advisory services are available today, leading to increasingly PSS. PSS hold the potential to overcome constraints related to funding, staffing and expertise, and making advisory services more demand-driven. But are PSS really able to reach the millions of farmers in need of services? »
Innovation for inclusive value-chain development: Successes and challenges
Published by IFPRI,
This publication assesses how to improve agricultural value chains, particularly value chains that include smallholders. Despite increasing use of innovation-system and value-chain approaches to promote rural income growth, poverty reduction, and greater gender equity, there is little systematic knowledge about how to operationalize value-chain approaches in different contexts and how best to evaluate innovation and value-chain development. This book consists of 14 papers that present results of recent work associated with CGIAR and its partners in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. »
Inclusive agribusiness: The state of play background working paper
Published by Global Donor Platform for Rural Development,
This working paper has been prepared as background for the inclusive agribusiness work stream of the Global Donor Platform for Rural Development (GDPRD). The paper outlines the concept of inclusive business and its application to the agrifood sector, it maps the current state of play and explores implications for donors and the GDPRD. The paper also highlights a weak and fragmented evidence base regarding impact, which risks undermining the case for the much needed investment to take promising example to scale. »
Public-private partnerships for agribusiness development – A review of international experiences
Published by FAO,
This publication aims to improve understanding of the potential benefits and challenges of agri-Public-Private Partnerships (PPP). It provides an analysis of 70 PPP cases gathered from 15 developing countries, together with evidence from FAO’s support to the review of PPP policies for agriculture in Southeast Asia and Central America. Agri-PPPs are expected to contribute to the pursuit of sustainable agricultural development that is inclusive of smallholder farmers. »
Procurement governance for home grown school feeding
Published by SNV,
This learning series discusses the Procurement Governance for Home Grown School Feeding (PG-HGSF) project, which develops a more inclusive and responsive relationship between smallholder farmers and school feeding buyers in Ghana, Kenya, and Mali.  »
Market-based solutions for input supply: making inputs accessible for smallholder farmers in Africa
Published by KIT, SNV,
This paper by the Netherlands Development Organization (SNV) and the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) gives best practises in exploring market-based solutions for improved input supply. The lessons out of this paper can help donors and policy makers increase the impact of their input support programs. To define these lessons, practitioners managing input-related projects from SNV and KIT, came together at a workshop in Johannesburg in December 2014. »
Realising the promise of inclusive agribusiness
Published by Donor Platform,
Consultant to the Donor Platform Jim Woodhill explored questions around inclusive agribusiness in a webinar on 5th July 2016, where he shared the results of his background working paper on inclusive agribusiness, including recommendations for donors. One of the key messages is that there are numerous inclusive agribusiness-related projects/businesses that have generated a broad base of practitioners with a growing understanding of how to put inclusive agribusiness models into practice. »
Event report: Roundtable on inclusive agribusiness in Southeast Asia
Published by Seas of Change,
This conference report provides a snapshot of the rich content and discussions from the Roundtable on Inclusive Agribusiness in Southeast Asia, held in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam on 23–24 September 2015. The Roundtable brought together approximately 120 business leaders, key development practitioners, policy makers and research experts, largely from Myanmar, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam. »
Partnerships delivering inclusive business
Published by The Practitioner Hub for Inclusive Business & The Partnering Initiative,
The Practitioner Hub for Inclusive Business and The Partnering Initiative, with support from the UK’s Department for International Development, developed a series which focused on the role of partnerships in delivering inclusive business. They explored why and when partnerships are necessary, why they can be so challenging, and how those challenges can be overcome. »
Inclusive business models: Guidelines for improving linkages between producer groups and buyers of agricultural produce
Published by FAO,
These guidelines by FAO have been developed to support the growth of inclusive business models (IBMs) that integrate smallholders into agricultural value chains. Small actors in agricultural value chains are tied to markets through a series of forward and backward business linkages, which incorporate various types of business models. The complexity of these business models varies according to the commodity, number of actors involved, local context and market structure. »
The 4Ps of inclusive business: How perseverance, partnerships, pilots and passion can lead to success
Published by Business Innovation Facility,
Business Innovation Facility (BIF), is a pilot programme funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), that has provided hundreds of inclusive businesses with technical and advisory support, which means the BIF team has been truly inside the ‘engine’ of business. This report is the culmination of the lessons learned during this work, written at the completion of the BIF pilot. The report draws together findings on inclusive business models that work – or don’t – and the journeys that companies are making. »
Fostering inclusive outcomes in sub-Saharan African agriculture. Improving agricultural productivity and expanding agribusiness opportunities
Published by IFAD,
This paper by IFAD looks at the role of agriculture in fostering inclusive and sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa. It discusses how improving agricultural productivity, smallholder access to markets and expanding agribusiness opportunities can accelerate transformation, investment and industrialization. The paper presents key investment and policy elements to be considered and points to the centrality of smallholders for the rural transformation process to be inclusive. »
Is inclusive business for you? Managing and upscaling an inclusive company – lessons from the field
Published by CDI & CTA,
This publication by the Centre for Development Innovation (CDI) and The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) provides readers with a valuable understanding of how agri-food markets can contribute to food security and rural poverty reduction, while still building profitable commercial relations. The report gives the outcomes of the ‘From Islands of Success to Seas of Change’ initiative on scaling inclusive agri-food markets. »
It takes two to trade: Understanding and improving farmer-firm relations in Africa
Published by AgriProFocus,
This book focuses on understanding and improving relations between farmers and firms. The book presents an approach – comprising an analytical framework, a practical assessment tool and suggestions for action – that can be used to analyse, assess and facilitate the relationship between supplying farmers and their organization on the one hand and buying firms on the other. This approach is called “It takes two to trade” (abbreviated as “2-2 Trade”) because farmers and firms need each other if their relationship to perform wel. »
From subsistence to successful businesses
Published by APPG,
This Report by the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Agriculture and Food for Development (APPG) give recommendations on how to support and scale up smallholder agribusiness development in sub-Saharan Africa. This report represents a summary of the wide variety of case studies, evidence and learning presented to the APPG. Enabling the development of small-scale agri-enterprise is a long-term venture and will only be realised in an inclusive way if women, who represent 70% of farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, are specifically targeted. »
From smallholder to small business: Private sector insights on service delivery models that boost profitability along the value chain
Published by Grow Africa and IDH,
This report (PDF) by Grow Africa and IDH, offers a first set of insights, distilled from the knowledge of leading practitioners, on how to successfully integrate smallholders into value chains through effective service delivery and smallholder aggregation models. »
Netherlands Food Partnership

The F&BKP is continuing in Netherlands Food Partnership: find more knowledge & expertise at the NFP website.