Effects of milk cooling: A case study on milk supply chain for a factory in Ethiopia
In this study (PDF) by CGIAR the effects of different scenarios for introducing a cold milk chain are evaluated based on rejection rates and costs to increase the milk supply of a milk factory near Solulta (Ethiopia). Milk has important nutritious values and therefore can contribute to nutrition security in Africa. The product category is a hotspot for food loss & waste and the associated greenhouse gas emissions in African countries. Therefore, adequate design of milk collection chains and choice of technology options is essential to make the food product available with minimum climate impact. The analyses show that cooling is essential for preventing losses in collecting evening milk in the supply area of the milk factory. For the morning milk, cooling becomes more essential when the time between collection and arrival at the factory gate increases. Introduction of chilling centres or on-farm cooling system can both make the evening milk delivery possible for the factory. For the first option, the implementation of a collection system will be critical, whereas for on-farm cooling the willingness to extend the power grid and the type of milk containers are essential. Depending on the ambition of the Ethiopian government to connect household in farmland close to an already existing power grid, either increasing the power grid or the chilling centre is the most promising option. On-farm off-grid cooling systems seem not economically feasible in the studied area.