Aquaculture zoning, site selection and area management under the ecosystem approach to aquaculture
Land governance and water governance tend to address similar challenge with regard to the equitable distribution of resources. This handbook (PDF) by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Bank focuses on water governance and provides practical guidance on aquaculture spatial planning and management. Spatial planning for aquaculture should consider the balance between the social, economic, environmental and governance objectives of local communities and sustainable development. This process is termed the ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA). Three principles govern the implementation of the EAA: (i) Aquaculture should be developed in the context of ecosystem functions and services with no degradation of these beyond their resilience. (ii) Aquaculture should improve human well-being with equity for all relevant stakeholders. (iii) Aquaculture should be developed in the context of other sectors, policies and goals, as appropriate. This publication describes the processes and steps for spatial planning, including aquaculture zoning, site selection and area management; and the resources required. Six annexes present key topics, including: (i) binding and non-legally binding international instruments that govern sustainable aquaculture; (ii) bio-security, zoning and compartments, infected zones and disease-free zones; (iii) aquaculture certification and zonal management; (iv) an overview of key tools and models to facilitate and inform the spatial planning process; (v) case studies from ten countries; and (vi) a workshop report. A separate policy brief, accompanying this paper, can be found here.