Public policies for improving food and nutrition security at different scales
This paper in Food Security assesses which policy approaches are most effective to achieve zero hunger in the world by 2050. Three different kind of policies were analysed: policies related to influencing demand, policies targeting consumer access to food and policies targeted at influencing producer supply. Policies that target consumer demand for food, include instruments which influence employment and incomes, food preferences and consumer knowledge, health services and food safety. Policies which influence consumer access to food depend on functional value chains, equitable market environments, infrastructure, and creating enabling environments for business investment and engagement through incentives and regulations. Policies that influence producer supply could assist in enhancing food production through rural infrastructure development, agricultural research and development, resource management, farm inputs and produce pricing. The authors considered a range of diverse policy approaches targeted at demand, access and supply that directly affect food and nutrition security with a view to better understanding which are most effective. The authors conclude that the effectiveness of food security policies is determined by selecting the best bundle of policy instruments for the specific context and country and that trade-offs between policy instruments should be well-understood, in order to achieve the right goals and avoid perverse outcomes.