Youth migration and labour constraints in African agrarian households
This article in The Journal of Development Studies studies how youth migration affects household labour, hired labour demand, and income, and whether these effects vary by migrant sex and destination. Panel data is used from Ethiopia and Malawi. Labour shortages arise from the migration of a head’s child. However, the migration of the head’s sons produces a greater burden, particularly on female heads/spouses (in Ethiopia) and brothers (in Malawi). Gains from migration in the form of increased total net income justify the increased labour efforts in Ethiopia. Weaker evidence suggests households in Malawi substitute hired for migrant family labour at the expense of total household net income.