Drivers and patterns of rural youth migration and its impact on food security and rural livelihoods in Tunisia
This report (PDF) by the FAO and the European University Institute addresses the determinants of migration and mobility, the patterns and types of rural youth outmigration and the impact of rural youth migration on rural livelihoods, food security, agriculture and development in rural areas in Tunisia. The majority of migrants are men, especially among international migrants. International migrants often have higher educational levels than non-migrants. At the same time, migration can be driven by an increase in study-related reasons. Recent migrants are likely to perform agricultural production and livestock farming as main activities. A possible explanation is the reduction in income from agricultural activities. Key reasons for internal migration in general are connected to the search for better job opportunities and the improvement of living conditions. A significant process of feminization of migration is seen from rural areas moving to other regions, which is associated with an increase in highly educated women. Women’s migration can have critical impact on household’s food security since rural women are largely responsible for the secondary farming activities. Migration seems to be rewarding for both internal and international migrants in terms of occupation. The main effect is on female labour market participation and access to employment. Only one out of four migrants sends remittance, which is more likely for international migrants. There is little evidence about the determinants of youth migration from rural areas and its potential impact on food security and rural poverty. Given the key role of agriculture as preferred sector or transnational engagement of migrant and as targeted domain of activity and investment upon future return, policies focusing on migration and rural development could address both these forms of diaspora mobilisation. Measures to favour the return of migrants could include the offer of tailored training opportunities, access to targeted financial products start-up grants and equipment at subsidized prices.
Key findings of the report can be found here.