Food security policy and governance

[Archive] Scaling

Food security policy and governance - Scaling
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While developing innovative pilot projects and programmes is difficult, interventions to scale relevant and effective approaches is often an enormous challenge. In this topic, examples of projects and models for up-scaling and out-scaling are presented to provide inspiration and to scale (more) successfully. Scaling out is defined as replication, multiplication, mainstreaming and expansion. Scaling up as transition, transformation, institutionalization, incorporation and evolution.

Academic article Article Book Booklet/ Brochure Briefing Case study Conference Discussion paper Other Paper Policy report Report Working paper
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Prioritizing climate-smart agricultural land use options at a regional scale
Published by Agricultural Systems journal,
This article in the Agricultural Systems journal, describes a spreadsheet-based methodology that generates information about the suitability of climate-smart agriculture based on a region specific production function and ‘target yield’ approach in current and future climate scenarios. The promotion of climate-smart agriculture in different parts of the world requires a clear understanding of its relative suitability, costs and benefits, and the environmental implications of various technological interventions in a local context under current and future climates. Such data is generally difficult to obtain. »
Growing advantage of large farms in Asia and its implications for global food security
Published by Global Food Security journal,
This article, published in the Global Food Security journal, argues that if small-scale farms continue to dominate in the face of the increasing wage rate in Asia, many countries in this region will lose their comparative advantage in agriculture. If machinery and land are complementary and machines are indivisible to some extent, large-scale mechanized farms become more efficient, which tends to weaken the inverse farm size-productivity relationship. »
Towards a structured approach to support responsible scaling of innovations in the context of agrifood systems
Published by CDI,
This booklet by the Centre of Development Innovation (CDI) is part of a series of legacy products of the CGIAR Research Program on Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics (Humidtropics). It structures key findings from earlier research towards an approach that connects a theory of change perspective specifically to the question of ‘how scaling happens’. »
Subnational distribution of average farm size and smallholder contributions to global food production
Published by Environmental Research Letters journal,
This article, published in the Environmental Research Letters journal, presents a map of mean agricultural area, classified by the amount of land per farming household, at subnational resolutions across three key global regions using a novel integration of household microdata and agricultural landscape data. These data meet a critical need, as improved understanding of the prevalence and distribution of smallholder farming is essential for effective policy development for food security, poverty reduction, and conservation agendas. »
Evidence-based opportunities for out-scaling climate-smart agriculture in East Africa
Published by CGIAR,
This working paper by CGIAR contains a systematic review of 175 peer-reviewed and grey literature studies, to gauge the impact of over seventy potential climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices on CSA outcomes in Tanzania and Uganda. Climate-smart agriculture is being widely promoted as a solution for food insecurity and climate change adaptation in food systems of sub-Saharan Africa, while simultaneously reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. »
Systemic perspectives on scaling agricultural innovations. A review
Published by Agronomy for Sustainable Development Journal,
This article in the Agronomy for Sustainable Development Journal, conceptualizes scaling processes as an integral part of a systemic approach to innovation, to anticipate on the possible consequences of scaling efforts. The authors propose a method that connects the heuristic framework of the multi-level perspective on socio-technical transitions (MLP) to a philosophical ‘modal aspects’ framework, with the objective of elucidating the connectedness between technologies, processes and practices. »
Towards developing scalable climate-smart village models: approach and lessons learnt from pilot research in West Africa
Published by ICRAF, CCAFS-CGIAR,
This report by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and CCAFS-CGIAR provides lessons learned on a project on “Developing community-based climate smart agriculture through participatory action research in CCAFS benchmark sites in West Africa”. After three years of implementation, the document is describing the approach used and the lessons learnt. An evaluation of the project through two consultants reported that the project was well designed and was very relevant in the context of climate change as its objectives are in line with local needs especially national research/ development goals. »
Targeting, out-scaling and prioritising climate-smart interventions in agricultural systems: Lessons from applying a generic framework to the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa
Published by Agricultural Systems Journal,
In this paper in the Agricultural Systems Journal, the authors provide climate smart agriculture (CSA) planners and implementers at all levels with a generic framework for evaluating and prioritising potential interventions. This entails an iterative process of mapping out recommendation domains, assessing adoption potential and estimating impacts. Through examples, related to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa, each of the steps is demonstrated and how they are interlinked. »
Scaling impact: Zambia profit case study
Published by USAID,
This case study by USAID analyzes the extent to which dynamics between input suppliers and smallholders have changed in Zambia. This includes the extent to which input suppliers’ focus on smallholders as a viable market has persisted, reversed, or evolved, and what this means for smallholders; what external economic and policy factors supported or hindered smallholder input market growth; and what lessons policymakers and practitioners can draw from the evolution of the Zambian input supply sector over the past ten years. »
Scaling up climate-smart agriculture: lessons learned from South Asia and pathways for success
Published by World Agroforestry Centre,
This World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) working paper builds on a series of workshops and eight of the latest climate-smart agriculture case studies from South Asia. It identifies seven key ‘ingredients’ and several pathways for successfully scaling up climate-smart agriculture. The paper aims to help policy makers and rural development practitioners strategically plan scaling up of successful climate-smart agriculture practices. »
Six steps to success: Lessons learnt from five years of CCAFS
Published by CGIAR CCAFS,
This brochure (PDF) by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), focuses on how to make 500 million farmers climate-resilient in 10 years while also reducing their agricultural emissions. It includes lessons learnt from five years of CCAFS work. »
Agricultural mechanization and south-south knowledge exchange: What can Ghanaian and Nigerian policymakers learn from Bangladesh’s experience?
Published by IFPRI,
This policy note shows to what extend mechanization efforts from Bangladesh can be used as an example for these transformations in Ghana and Nigeria. The notes elaborates on the experiences of a p Past efforts in these countries have mostly focused on the styles of machinery used in western countries or Latin American countries, where average farm sizes are much larger. In Bangladesh recent fast growth in agricultural mechanization has spread among smallholder farmers that own an average of 0.5 hectares. »
Assessment of upgrading strategies to improve regional food systems in Tanzania
Published by Outlook on Agriculture,
This article in the Outlook on Agriculture journal, assesses the feasibility and potential success of upgrading strategies (UPS) as well as their assessment criteria as developed by German and Tanzanian agricultural scientists. The results form part of a larger participatory research project conducted in two climatically representative regions of Tanzania: semi-arid Dodoma and subhumid Morogoro. This paper presents the findings with respect to food processing, waste management and bioenergy, along with income generation and market participation. »
Scaling up Agroecology through Market Systems
Published by Practical Action,
This paper by Practical Action uses the three pillars of Technology Justice (access, local innovation, and sustainable use of technologies) to assess the range of agricultural development pathways available. This policy briefing presents existing evidence and research in agroecology alongside case studies of successful initiatives with scalable potential, particularly where market systems are at the core of development practices. »
The barriers to scaling up/out climate smart agriculture and strategies to enhance adoption in Africa
Published by FARA,
This report by FARA identifies barriers to scaling up/out climate smart agriculture (CSA) practices and proposes strategies and practical actions to remove the barriers and enhance adoption of CSA in Africa. The publication highlights that Early Warning Systems (EWS) are critical for monitoring major uncertainties when making decisions regarding the bio-physical, management and ecological barriers to adoption of CSA. Successful CSA practices at farm, landscape and entire food system levels are essential to be up and out-scaled. »
Reaching more farmers: Innovative approaches to scaling up climate-smart agriculture
Published by CGIAR CCAFS,
The working paper (PDF) by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), aims to provide insight into how we can use novel approaches to scale up research findings on climate-smart agriculture (CSA) to meaningfully address the challenges of poverty and climate change. The approaches described include those based on value chains and private sector involvement, policy engagement, and information and communication technologies and agro-advisory services. The paper draws on 11 case studies to exemplify these new approaches to scaling up. »
Unlocking Africa’s agricultural potential for transformation to scale African livestock development
Published by ILRI & AU-IBAR,
The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) prepared a policy brief for the three-day high-level meeting on ‘feeding Africa’ held October 2015 in Dakar, Senegal. Improved livestock genetics, health and feed—guided by policies geared towards enabling a sustainable and business-friendly environment—are key to unlocking the potential of agriculture in Africa, according to the policy brief prepared by Barry Shapiro, senior livestock development advisor at ILRI and Simplice Nouala, chief animal production officer, AU-IBAR. »
From lessons to practice and impact: Scaling up pathways in peoples’ biodiversity management
Published by Oxfam,
This briefing note by Oxfam highlights lessons learned from the three-year global programme ‘Putting lessons into practice: Scaling up People’s Biodiversity Management for Food Security’. Findings on innovation and learning from the three partner countries have been consolidated into a global framework, and further conceptualised into six scaling up pathways, to ensure widespread impact—in such a way that social, environmental, or economic conditions can be enhanced beyond the context of this programme. »
Towards a comprehensive strategic framework to upscale and out-scale ecosystem based adaptation (EbA) driven agriculture in Africa
Published by weADAPT ,
This article on weADAPT is based on the report “Towards a comprehensive Strategic Framework to Upscale and Out-scale Ecosystem Based Adaptation (EbA) driven agriculture in Africa”, which was released ahead of the 2nd Africa EbA for Food Security Conference, hosted by the UNEP in Nairobi in July 2015. This strategic framework (PDF) by Ebafos seeks to build on the key theme of enhancing productivity of Africa’s food systems, by proposing a holistic approach that considers productivity of the agriculture value chain as a continuum. »
Scaling success: Lessons from adaptation pilots in the rainfed regions of India
Published by WRI,
This report by the World Resources Institute (WRI) aims to accelerate scaling of adaptation in rainfed India by providing a framework to enable project implementers, funding agencies, and policy makers to identify good adaptation practice, determine what is ready to be scaled, and understand the process of scaling and the conditions necessary to support it. The four parts of the adaptation scaling framework include: 1) Good adaptation practice indicators; 2) Scaling readiness; 3) Scaling pathways; and 4) Conditions for scaling. »
Scaling up aquaculture development through triangular cooperation between Namibia, Spain, Viet Nam and FAO
Published by FAO,
Aquaculture production remains low in sub-Saharan Africa, with per capita consumption of only 9.1 kg/year. But there is great potential to expand the sector on the African continent, particularly through the use of south-south cooperation programmes. This project is finding innovative ways to produce fish in remote areas. »
Scaling up nutrition actions – nutrition sensitive agriculture and rural development
Published by A4NH & IFAD,
In partnership with A4NH, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) developed a note outlining ways to scale up results in nutrition-sensitive agriculture and rural development. The note (PDF) offers guidance to help implementers maximize agriculture and rural development interventions to eliminate malnutrition. »
Scaling up Regreening: Six steps to success: A practical approach to forest and landscape restoration
Published by WRI,
This report by the World Resources Institute sets out a six-step framework for scaling up regreening, each step accompanied by a list of practical, on-the-ground activities to guide development practitioners and regreening advocates. Regreening occurs at the landscape level through a variety of agroforestry and sustainable land management practices. »
Scaling up dissemination and adoption of agricultural technologies using innovation platforms—lessons from Eastern and Central Africa
Published by ASARECA,
This publication (PDF) by the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA) and partners, aims to contribution to the growing body of knowledge on the application of innovation platforms and value chain framework in agricultural research for development in the region. The book provides practical experiences, lessons learned and guiding principles... »
The role of voluntary sustainability standards in scaling up sustainability in smallholder-dominated agricultural sectors
Published by Aidenvironment, NewForesight & IIED,
This paper (PDF) by Aidenvironment, NewForesight and IIED presents the value proposition of voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) and the challenges they face in obtaining scale and impact in sectors dominated by unorganized smallholders. It explores their potential role in scaling sustainability within a more holistic sector transformation model. »
Blowing the seeds of innovation: How scaling unfolds in innovation processes towards food security and sustainable agriculture
Published by Wageningen UR,
This policy brief (PDF) by WUR presents a summary of the results of a two year strategic research project ‘Innovation systems and scaling in practice’. This project was executed by Wageningen UR as part of the Knowledge Base research programme of the Ministry of Economic Affairs. The booklet highlights three case studies from different countries. »
Towards responsible scaling up and out in agricultural development : An exploration of concepts and principles
Published by Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation,
This discussion paper (PDF) by the Centre for Development Innovation (CDI) was prepared for the CGIAR Research Program on Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics. The paper highlights that scaling up and out is a multi-faceted subject with various dimensions of challenges. It is meant to inspire discussions on the topic of processes of scaling up... »
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