Food security policy and governance

Food and nutrition policies

Food security policy and governance - Food and Nutrition Policies
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Governments, the corporate sector and the civil society in the field of food and nutrition security (FNS) have current expertise on the operational, policy and institutional changes needed to realize FNS. This expertise can ensure system change at local, national and global levels for improved FNS as well as economically and ecologically resilient food systems. Advanced understanding of inter-, multi- and trans-disciplinary approaches is important since many policy sectors influence the sustainability of food systems, such as water management, infrastructure, finance, education, etc. In this Knolwedge Portal topic, knowledge is presented on coherent and effective food policies at international, regional and national levels; international policies and their interaction with low- and middle-income countries and examples of prominent integral approaches.

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Recurring storms: food insecurity, political instability, and conflict
Published by CSIS,
This report by CSIS reviews the prospects for increasing food security and links this to the polictical instability and conflict situations that comes with it.The experiences of post-conflict countries highlight some critical issues that need to be prioritized in order to regain sustainable food security. Averting future storms will require the recognition that food security challenges will extend long beyond 2030, political leadership must be visibly committed to these issues, and actions to reduce fragmentation of effort will be critical. »
The future of food and agriculture: Trends and challenges
Published by FAO,
This report lays out and analyses 15 key global trends that are influencing and will influence food and agriculture in the coming decades, and comments on the associated 10 challenges ahead. Several trends that will impact agriculture and food systems are: global population growth is slowing, but Africa and Asia will still see a large population expansion; economic growth is leading to dietary transition, e.g. demand for food is changing towards higher consumption of meat and dairy products and other more resource-intensive food items. »
Achieving water, energy and food security in Indonesia
Published by Global Canopy Programme, WCS Indonesia Program & CDKN,
This policy brief draws on a series of studies, multi- stakeholder meetings and group discussions that explored the challenges facing Indonesia’s national and provincial governments in achieving both development and environmental goals. The analysis is informed by a water- energy-food (WEF) nexus framework that has emerged as an important concept for addressing resource trade-offs. »
The impact of taxes and subsidies on crop yields: Agricultural price distortions in Africa
Published by PBL,
This report elaborates on the impact of agricultural taxes and subsidies on crop yields in Africa. The key finding presented is that both taxes and subsidies wield a negative influence on crop yields. Clearly, levying taxes and subsidies have their merit, for raising public finances and providing rural income support respectively, but neither leads to a more intensified agriculture. »
What are the challenges and opportunities for multi-level advocacy for nutrition?
Published by IDS,
This policy brief by IDS gives an overview on the challenges and opportunities for multi-level advocacy. Over the last decade, policy advocacy has made critical contributions towards the development of nutrition policies, laws and strategies in many countries with high burdens of malnutrition. Translating and safeguarding these policy achievements into results on the ground requires nutrition advocacy to be pursued across administrative levels and throughout the policy cycle. »
Shaping the future of global food systems: A scenarios analysis
Published by World Economic Forum and Deloitte,
This report presents four scenarios for the future of global food systems. These possible futures of global food systems broaden perspectives about alternative future environments. The report aims to challenge global leaders to think in new ways about the future and to motivate action on key issues that will shape the global food systems. The key question is: How will food systems nutritiously and sustainable feed 8.5 billion people in 2030? »
Sustainable food security and nutrition: Demystifying conventional beliefs
Published by Global Food Security,
This article explores the myths and realities surrounding the relationship between environmental sustainability, food security, and nutrition. According to the authors, policymakers and researchers alike often make inaccurate assumptions about technological innovations, gender, biofuels, and smallholder farming. Such sustainable food security and nutrition “myths” pose a significant challenge to the effective design and promotion of more environmentally-friendly agricultural and food systems. »
OECD-FAO agricultural outlook 2016-2025
Published by OECD & FAO,
This report by OECD and FAO brings together the commodity, policy and country expertise of both organisations and input from collaborating member countries to provide an assessment of medium-term prospects of national, regionaland global agricultural commodity markets. The Outlook provides supply, demand, trade andprice estimates of major agricultural commodities for 41 countries and 12 geographical regions. The special theme chapter of this year’s edition focusses on the prospects and challenges of the agricultural sector in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). »
Is African agriculture sustainable enough to support an agro-allied industrial development strategy? Evidence from Ghana and Nigeria
Published by Allegheny College,
This paper provides an overview of the meaning and conditions under which an agro-allied industrial development strategy in Africa could work. The notion of an agro-allied industrial development strategy in Africa presupposes the existence of a vibrant and sustainable agricultural sector. The authors suggest that this assumption may be too heroic and unrealistic. »
Territorial food systems: Protecting the rural and localizing human rights accountability
Published by Global Network for the right to food and nutrition,
This working paper by the Global Network for the right to food and nurition argues that we need to react against the urbanization of the development agenda, and the long-held dichotomy of rural and urban spaces. It addresses ongoing discussions in preparation of Habitat III, the UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development. The terms ‘rural-urban linkages’, ‘city-region food systems’, and ‘territorial food systems’ are often used interchangeably in international policy fora, academia, and other discussions on how rural and urban spaces relate to each other in food systems. »
The economic advantage assessing the value of climate-change actions in agriculture
Published by IFAD,
This report by IFAD contributes arguments and information on economic assessment for agriculture under climate change. It is aimed at readers who seek to build economic evidence in support of the inclusion of actions on agriculture in climate change plans and programmes. The focus is particularly on the national level under the umbrella of nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to the December 2015 Paris agreement. »
Trade, food security, and the 2030 Agenda
Published by ICTSD,
This report explores the contribution that trade and trade policy could make to the hunger and malnutrition objectives of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The paper looks at past progress and projected trends, and examines options for government action in the years ahead. Projections indicate that governments must now go beyond a “business as usual” approach if the new hunger and nutrition goals are to be achieved. »
Food and nutrition security: towards the full realisation of human rights
Published by IPC,
This issue of Policy in Focus (PDF) by the International Policy Centre for inclusive growth (IPC) sought to present readers with a selection of contributing authors and articles that share a holistic interpretation of the human right to adequate food and nutrition. This interpretation reaffirms that its true realisation goes far beyond the mere fulfilment of basic food and nutritional needs but, rather, must incorporate multiple dimensions. The contributing authors featured in this issue present critical analyses of some of the most relevant public policy strategies aiming to overcome challenges towards the realization of these dimensions. »
The informal sector’s role in food security: A missing link in policy debates?
Published by PLAAS, UWC, Centre of Excellence on Food Security,
This paper reviews what is currently known about the role played by the informal sector in general and informal retailers in particular, in the accessibility of food in South Africa. The review seeks to identify policy relevant research gaps. The authors conclude their study with critique on the policy environment. They highlight a production and rural bias in the food security agenda and argue that the policy environment for informal operators is at best benign neglect and at worse actively destructive, with serious food security implications. »
Achieving food security: the role of the public and private investments
Published by The Broker,
To implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, developing countries will have to increasingly rely on domestic finance for investment in agriculture. As public funding for agriculture decreases, the role of private investment and, in particular, smallholder farmers, needs to be scaled up to achieve sustainable food security. In this expert opinion published on The Broker, Danko elaborates on the changing landscape of investing in food security and agriculture. »
Growth and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: the role of agricultural development
Published by UNU-WIDER,
This book by UNU-WIDER comprehensively evaluates trends in living conditions in 16 major sub-Saharan African countries, corresponding to nearly 75% of the total population. An important message from ten of the countries they looked at is that there are potentially high returns to policies that take agriculture seriously. Countries that place a particular emphasis on upgrading the capabilities of small-scale farmers are more likely to achieve broad-based development objectives. »
Brazil–Africa knowledge-sharing on social protection and food and nutrition security
Published by IPC-IG,
This paper was published by the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) and is an analysis on how knowledge-sharing between Brazil and several sub-Saharan countries, in the fields of social protection and food and nutrition security policies and programmes have influenced the African policies and programmes. According to the research, experiences that were shared about programs like Bolsa Familia, Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar and the Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos were the inspiration for the creation of similar tools in African countries and had a positive impact. »
Extension in motion
Published by KIT,
This paper by KIT is about the role that agricultural extension can play to rural development. KIT asked eight renowned experts in the field of extension to guide the reader on a narrative journey through the intricacies of agricultural extension. Agricultural extension has a significant role to play in rural development. Yet, ‘extension’ itself is also developing and so is its role in development. How extension is understood, coordinated, financed and implemented has evolved over time. »
Public policies for rural development and combating poverty in rural areas
Published by IPC-IG,
This paper by the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) present an evaluation of the public policies in Brazil that are aimed at promoting family farming. Brazil has become a good example of public policies aimed at combating poverty and fostering rural development, or, in other words, promoting family farming. The country has even 'exported' some of its policies, notably the Programa Bolsa Família and the Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA—Food Acquisition Programme). »
Global food security index 2016
Published by The Economist ,
This report on the Global Food Security Index presents the key findings of the new index. The index considers the core issues of affordability, availability, and quality across a set of 113 countries. The index is a dynamic quantitative and qualitative benchmarking model, constructed from 28 unique indicators, that measures these drivers of food security across both developing and developed countries. »
The unholy alliance, five western donors shape a pro-corporate agenda for African agriculture
Published by The Oakland Institute,
This report from the Oakland Institute exposes how a coalition of four donor countries and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is shaping a pro-business environment in the agricultural sector of developing countries, especially in Africa. The report focuses on the Enabling the Business of Agriculture (EBA) project, implemented by the World Bank. »
Assuring safe food systems: Policy options for a healthier food supply
Published by Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition ,
This policy brief reviews food safety issues that are critical to poor and vulnerable populations in low- and middle-income countries, with a particular focus on their impact on healthy diets. With growing international concern over unsafe food, it is important that policies in agriculture and the food system are designed to ensure both the nutritional quality and the safety of the foods we eat. While food safety has traditionally been a health or medical matter, it is increasingly recognized as an important issue for agriculture and food systems since it influences trade, rural incomes, and purchasing power and workers productivity. »
The global food policy report
Published by IFPRI,
This report examines major food policy issues, global and regional developments, and commitments made in 2015, and presents data on key food policy indicators. The report also proposes key policy options for 2016 and beyond to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. In 2015, the global community made major commitments on sustainable development and climate change. »
Public policies for improving food and nutrition security at different scales
Published by Food Security,
This paper assesses which policy approaches are most effective to achieve zero hunger in the world by 2050. Three different kind of policies were analysed: policies related to influencing demand, policies targeting consumer access to food and policies targeted at influencing producer supply. The authors conclude that the effectiveness of food security policies is determined by selecting the best bundle of policy instruments for the specific context and country and that trade-offs between policy instruments should be well-understood, in order to achieve the right goals and avoid perverse outcomes. »
Governing food and nutrition security in food-importing and aid-recipient countries: Burkina Faso and Ethiopia
Published by FoodSecure,
This working paper analyses to what extend development partners contribute to change in food and nutrition security policies in Ethiopia and Burkina Faso. The analysis of some policy-decisions shows the complexity of relations between aid and national the actors. The authors analyse how the multidimensional nature of food and nutrition security challenges is addressed in policy-making processes. The authors discovered that often FNS policies and institutional frameworks remain predominantly agricultural production-oriented. »
Enhancing rural labour productivity: Reaching the rural poor
Published by KIT, SNV,
This working paper scrutinizes to what extend agricultural development interventions have had a sustainable impact on the poorest rural households. The paper argues that conventional agronomic interventions, focused on raising land productivity through intensification often exclude the poorest households. The authors describe five factors that play a key role in allowing the rural poor to escape poverty. »
Mapping the Vulnerability of Mountain Peoples to Food Insecurity
Published by FAO,
This report presents an updated geographic and demographic picture of the world’s mountain areas and assesses the vulnerability to food insecurity of mountain dwellers in developing countries. The report is a follow-up on FAO-report from 2003. »
Agriculture and food security: New challenges and options for international policy
Published by International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and World Economic Forum.,
This Policy Option Paper (PDF) from the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and World Economic Forum (WEF) identifies options for policies and international trade rules to respond to current challenges. »
New tool tracks food and agriculture policies
Published by Food Security Portal,
This article elaborates on the functions of the FAO's Food and Agriculture Policy Decisions Analysis Tool (Fapda). The web-based tool includes more than 6,000 policy decisions from more than 70 countries. It was developed in 2011 to provide an on-line repository for food and agricultural policy decisions from around the world. »
Food and agriculture: shifting landscapes for policy
Published by Oxford Review of Economic Policy,
This paper in Oxford Review of Economic Policy, describes the ways in which changing consumption patterns and production technologies have altered the boundaries between agriculture and food. The authors argue that regulatory systems and policies still tend to equate food with farming, reflecting the realities of the last century more than the policy challenges of today. »
Macroeconomics, agriculture, and food security: A guide to policy analysis in developing countries
Published by IFPRI,
This book by Eugenio Díaz-Bonilla, provides an introduction to policy analysis related to monetary, financial, fiscal, exchange rate, and trade policies as they affect, and are affected by, agricultural and food security issues. Its approach, based on a simplified macroeconomic consistency framework, uses empirical cases to illustrate the problems involved. »
Improved metrics and data are needed for effective food system policies in the post-2015 era
Published by The Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition,
This Global Panel’s technical brief (PDF) argues that the research community and governments need to work together to develop better ways to collect data which focuses on the nutritional impacts of food policy interventions. The brief is aimed at analysts, statistical experts and decision makers who use evidence to guide their policy choices. »
Donors and domestic policy makers: Two worlds in agricultural policy-making?
Published by Food Policy Journal,
This article argues that policy beliefs are neglected in the literature on agricultural policy-making. The authors use two case studies to investigate how policy beliefs influence decision-making on whether the agricultural sector is taxed or subsidized. In-depth interviews with policy actors from Ghana and Uganda were used to execute a discourse analysis. »
Global food security 2030- assessing trends in view of guiding future EU policies
Published by European Commission Joint Research Centre,
This report (PDF) from the European Commission shows that it is essential for Europe to move towards an integrated examination of a much broader landscape. By 2030 and beyond, food security will increasingly be considered as securing food supply in response to changing and growing global demand. »
Agricultural growth in West Africa: market and policy drivers
Published by FAO,
This report by the African Development Bank, ECOWAS and the Food and Agriculture Organization highlights opportunities for West African Agricultural growth. The authors states that the combination of strong demand growth, sustained economic growth, higher global agricultural prices, and an improved policy environment has generated the most conducive conditions for agricultural growth in West Africa in over 30 years. »
Optimizing Africa’s food systems
Published by International Policy Digest,
This article argues that the optimization of the agricultural sector in Africa is essential to achieve the SDGs and to ensure a healthy and prosperous Africa. The authors present different policy recommendations that, in their opinion, will not only ensure food security but also will promote inclusive growth. »
How can sector governance models drive sustainability performance in smallholder-dominated agricultural sectors?
Published by Aidenvironment, NewForesight & IIED,
This publication by Aidenvironment, NewForesight & IIED, explores the drivers and potential benefits of sector governance models in enabling the transition of smallholder-dominated agricultural sectors towards sustainability. »
The dynamics of the contemporary governance of the world’s food supply and the challenges of policy redirection
Published by Food Security Journal,
This paper in the Food Security Journal identifies the governance dynamics and the international policy architecture that frame contemporary policy actions in relation to the food supply and elaborates on key governance tensions that policy makers need to address to feed the world’s growing population by the mid-21st century. »
Ending poverty and hunger by 2030: an agenda for the global food system
Published by World Bank,
This report by the World Bank identifies key issues where the global food system should improve. The food system must become more sustainable. It must also raise the agricultural productivity of poor farmers, improve nutritional outcomes, and broadly adopt climate-smart agriculture that can withstand and mitigate climate change. »
The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2015
Published by FAO,
This year´s annual State of Food Insecurity in the World report by the Food and Agriculture Organisation, takes stock of progress made towards achieving the internationally established Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) and World Food Summit hunger targets and reflects on what needs to be done, as we transition to the new post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda. »
The Oxford Handbook of Food, Politics, and Society
Published by Oxford Handbooks,
This Oxford Handbook Food, Politics and Society, edited by Ronald J. Herring, explores the complex interrelationships between food and agriculture, politics, and society. More specifically, it considers the political aspects of three basic economic questions: what is to be produced? how is it to be produced? how it is to be distributed? »
Rural economic diversification in sub-Saharan Africa
Published by IIED,
This working paper discusses emerging policy implications for economic diversification in rural sub-Saharan Africa. While continuing to prioritize rural investments in the economic and social sectors, governments should mainstream rural development within national strategies and commit to the long term. »
Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and Sustainability
Published by National Academies Press,
This book "Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and Sustainability" identifies areas of research and development, technology, and resource needs for research in the field of animal agriculture, both nationally and internationally. The report assesses the global demand for products of animal origin in 2050 within the framework of ensuring global food security and evaluates how climate change and natural resource constraints may impact the ability to meet future global demand for animal products in sustainable production systems. »
Indigenous food systems, agroecology and the Voluntary Guidelines on Tenure
Published by FAO,
On the 2-3 February 2015, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) organized a technical meeting betwen Indigenous Peoples' respresentatives and FAO staff. This report includes the work plan based on the main suggestions made for how FAO and indigenous peoples can collaborate in the short, medium and long term. The report identifies concrete steps that can be followed in relation to the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication, known as the SSF Guidelines, inidgenous food systems and fishers among others. »
Agriculture and rural development for inclusive growth and food security in Morocco
Published by Brookings Institution,
This working paper (PDF) from Brookings Institution states that the objective of inclusive growth is linked to that of food and nutrition security. The Government of Morocco is implementing a rural development strategy with two pillars: the first pillar focuses on large modern farms, and the second pillar focuses on smallholder and family farming. The author argues that the twin goals of inclusive growth and food security would be best achieved by emphasizing the importance of the second pillar. »
Global crop data aid in food policy decisions
Published by IFPRI,
This article from IFPRI highlights a newly updated interactive website which provides spatially disaggregated crop production estimates for 42 crops around the globe. Knowledge on where in the world individual crops are cultivated, their production patterns, and whether they are irrigated or rain fed are essential components for ensuring adequate, sustainable food production and safeguarding food security. »
Governance of science, technology and innovation for food security in Africa: A conceptual framework for developing indicators
Published by CTA,
This paper (PDF) by professor John Ouma-Mugabe at the CTA website, lays out the conceptual framework for developing indicators for assessing the governance of science, technology and innovation (STI) in Africa. It is erected on the premise that the subject of ‘governance of science, technology and innovation’ is increasingly becoming part of academic inquiry and public policy discourse in Africa and internationally, yet there are no conceptual tools as well as empirically tested indicators for demonstrating what constitutes it. »
Global Food Policy Report 2014-2015
Published by IFPRI,
The Global Food Policy Report  (PDF) by IFPRI provides an in-depth look at major food policy developments and events. This annual report offers an overview of the policy developments that have contributed to or hindered progress in food and nutrition security. It reviews what happened in food policy and why, examines key challenges and opportunities, »
From liability to opportunity: how to build food security and nourish growth
Published by McKinsey,
This article by McKinsey & Company introduces an “integrated food economy approach” as a strategy for strengthening the food system. Indicators have been reviewed to assess country’s food availability, affordability and quality. According to the authors, four building blocks are needed for resilient food systems: 1) efficient agricultural production that takes advantage of innovative technologies... »
Social protection for enhanced food security in sub-Saharan Africa
Published by Food Policy,
This paper identifies several positive synergies between social protection programs and enhanced food security and entitlements to food. The author argues that entitlements to food can be strengthened, if social justice principles are introduced to the design and delivery of social protection programs. Examples reviewed include rights-based approaches such as employment guarantee schemes, community-based targeting and demand-driven accountability mechanisms. »
Food security and scarcity: why ending hunger is so hard
Published by C.Peter Timmer,
This book by C. Peter Timmer (available on University of Pennsylvania Press), provides an examination of what makes a productive, sustainable, and stable food system and of how to address the complex task of ending hunger. Important lessons learned are analysed, based on past work of the author as well as recent published research. Timmer... »
Conceptualizing drivers of policy change in agriculture, nutrition, and food security
Published by IFPRI,
This paper (PDF) by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) introduces an applied framework, named the kaleidoscope model, to analyze drivers of change in the food security arena, with a specific emphasis on agriculture and nutrition policies. Focusing on five key elements of the policy cycle—agenda setting, design, adoption, implementation, and evaluation and reform—the... »
The EU’s common agricultural policy: ensuring the EU’s development and agricultural policies evolve together
Published by European Commission,
At the Green week in Berlin a publication (PDF) was presented that explains how the EU’s common agricultural policy (CAP) meets the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, which aims to minimize problems for developing countries due to policies. The paper stresses that an effective policy coherence for development (PCD) agenda for food security... »
Digging deeper: inside Africa’s agricultural, food and nutrition dynamics
Published by ASC Leiden,
This book published in the African Dynamics Series of the African Studies Centre Leiden with contributions of a large group of researchers, attempts to ‘dig deeper’ into what is currently happening in Africa’s agricultural and rural sector and to convince policymakers and others that it is important to look at the current African rural dynamics... »
Principles for responsible investment in agriculture and food systems
Published by CFS,
The Committee on World Food Security (CFS) endorsed the Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems (PDF) in October 2014. The objective of the Principles is to promote responsible investment in agriculture and food systems that contribute to food security and nutrition, thus supporting the progressive realization of the right to adequate food... »
Addressing debates on African agriculture and rural development
Published by IIED, ODI and IDS,
IIED, ODI and IDS have published a series of papers addressing agricultural and rural development debates in sub-Saharan Africa. They aim to improve the understanding of agricultural and rural development in Africa in the context of both long-standing and new drivers of change, so as to stimulate debate and research, and contribute to improved policy... »
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